Scripted as the Mouth of the Vedapurusha, Vyakarana is the third Vedanga that helps in the understanding of the Vedangas. Vyakarna deals with Sanskrit grammar and thus helps in the formation and decomposition of words. They help you understand complex statements and thus, provide insightful analysis on how the words were formed during ancient times,
It has been stated that the old texts on Vyakarana are lost, yet its mention is present in Aranyaka. Here, technical terms about Sanskrit grammar are mentioned. There is a book named Ashtadhyayi of Panini which is found in a much later period of time, but it is the most celebrated and known textbook on ancient Sanskrit grammar. It is a book of great importance for anyone who wants to study Vedic scriptures.
What Is Vyakarana?
Vyakarana is one of the six ancient Vedangas. It is an ancillary science connected with the study of Vedas, which are actually scriptures in Hinduism. Vyakarna is the study of grammar and linguistic analysis in Sanskrit. Panini and Yaska are the two sages most celebrated scholars from the fifth century. Panini’s Ashtadhyayi is the most important surviving text of the vyakarana tradition. There are around 4000 sutras in the Ashtadhyayi, which is actually a compilation of eight chapters. Vyakarna explains the analysis of languages and the perfect ways to express words. They help you establish the verses with a proper meaning and context.
Vyakarana And The Understanding Of Vedangas
The main subject of the Vyakarana is the formation of words. It discusses the root and suffix of words. Root being “Prakriti” and Suffix being “Pratyaya”. There are 14 sutras mentioned by Panini, which are referred to as Maheswara sutras. They are said to have originated from Natraja’s Damru.
- a, i, u, ṇ |
- ṛ, ḷ, k |
- e, o, ṅ|
- ai, au, c|
- ha, ya, va, ra, ṭ |
- la, ṇ |
- ña, ma, ṅa, ṇa, na m|
- jha, bha, ñ|
- gha, ḍha, dha ṣ|
- ja, ba, ga, ḍa, da, ś|
- kha, pha, cha, ṭha, tha, ca, ṭa, ta, v|
- ka, pa, y|
- śa, ṣa, sa r|
- ha, l|
Shiva sutras deal with the accent, and intonation of different sounds. Thus, forming a letter or a word. Various elements are included in the study of Vyakarana. This is best done by presenting the contents divided amongst the various prakaraṇas
- Ground Rules
- Formation of feminine bases
- Compound words
- Taddhitas or secondary derivatives
- Conjugation of verbs
- Derivative verbs
- Uṇadi Sutras
- Vedic grammar
Grammar And Its Reference To The Scriptures
The six elements of Vedangas consist of Siksha, Chandas, Vyakarana, Nirukta, Jyotisa and Kalpa. These are also denoted as nose, feet, mouth, ears, eyes and hand, respectively. One must learn the Vedangas, before starting to understand the Vedic scriptures.
Vyakarana is an integral part of Vedic Scriptures and its studies. In fact, one must start learning Vyakarana from the very beginning. It is indeed useful to preserve and protect the sanctity of Vedas.
How difficult is it to learn Sanskrit?
Some of the people keep mentioning that Sanskrit is a difficult language to study. There might be two reasons behind such misconception. First being that the Sanskrit language is to be studied in a formal way, whereas the second being the inability to start learning a language from childhood. When you start learning other languages from childhood, it becomes difficult to value other languages. Some people also believe that there is a difference in the methodology that teaches Sanskrit. However, various studies also enable you to understand and start speaking the language in ten days or more.
Sanskrit requires a lot of effort and perfection to comprehend. Indeed there is a certain level of joy and intellect in learning Vyakarana and thereby, studying the Vedas, but you cannot just do it in a day. The building blocks for studying the Vedas teaches you rules governing the study and it is ideal you must learn the grammar before even trying to study the Vedas.
With some practice of the language, one can start reading texts like Mahabharata and Ramayana. Thus, this may help an individual tackle the works and understand the literature. It’s just similar to how reading fictional novels and books may help you read literature better.
Vyakarana Vedanga And Its Features
As we see along the last few centuries, the Vedic Scriptures have gotten refined into Sanskrit. These scriptures have the most intuitive grammar involved. The grammar of Sanskrit being the oldest is divided into components and rules governing how the components interact with each other. Sanskrit Vyakarana can generate millions of words and describe the world, its sciences and developments. The language has been examined at the most fundamental level and thus, the foundation of this relationship is led in a great way.
The language in which the vyakarana is written is almost a different class today. It has a number of abbreviations and rules involved. The composition of language is referred to as meta-language. Modern Languages have borrowed certain concepts from Sanskrit. Sanskrit scriptures and language have an extraordinary sophistication and perfection. The vyakarana in its final form is a collection of efforts by generations of grammarians.
Sanskrit Vyakarana is an inspiration amongst those who study it. It is the only work of perfection. It is the easiest and shortest of grammars to master. Each rule of Vyakarana is like the law of nature. Any keen observer may see that the speech can encounter greater learning and perception. We are blessed that we have inherited this wonderful science as a heritage and thus, we have Vedas and Sanskrit scriptures to pass on to our future generations.
With the emergence of modernization and fancy intuitiveness towards new languages, it has become quite difficult to make the younger generation understand the importance of the Sanskrit Scriptures. The broader concept and dedication required to study the Vedas is a time-consuming task. But, one must understand the knowledge it has to provide for you. The Vedic tradition can give you knowledge of life, philosophy, science and language altogether, It helps you understand life and the world beyond this life. The Vedangas are just a vital part of understanding the bigger concept like Vedas.