Mahabharata provides the heritage of Indian values and culture. The knowledge described in the Mahabharata tells us how we should treat our family members And, not just this, it also tells us that arrogance, jealousy, or estrangement in family relationships can lead us to a state of destruction. Though the Mahabharata is a battle of supremacy between the Suryavanshi Raj Kumar Kauravas and the Pandavas. But, if we consider the wisdom contained therein, it comes out as a shining guide for countless people all around. It is a master manual of healthy living and it contains answers to so many questions, in even the modern, contemporary times. Let us see some aspects of this most pious scripture.
Table of Contents
Krishna- Arjuna Dialogue In Bhagavad Gita
Everyone knows about the Bhagavad Gita. According to the Mahabharata legend, when the war broke out between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, Arjuna became emotional on seeing his loved ones in front of him on the battlefield and he refused to fight. At that time Lord Krishna gave Arjuna the knowledge of Gita in the field of Kurukshetra. It is known as Krishna-Arjuna Dialogue. Though this knowledge was given by God to Arjuna, it went on to the rest of the world, so that people can use it to their advantage and get freed from the bondage of illusion. (Maya)
In the fourth chapter of Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna says, “I had given this knowledge to Vivasvan in the past. Vivaswan told it to Manu and Manu told Ikshvaku.” In this way, Vivaswan i.e. Surya got the knowledge of Gita and Vaivasvata Manu was his son.” In this way, it kept on moving from generation to generation, but this yoga disappeared over time.
The Importance of Bhagavad Gita
Shrimad Bhagwat Geeta is a sacred and auspicious book written by Lord Ganesha while spoken by Rishi Vyasadeva. It discusses devotion as well as knowledge and karma yoga. Besides, there is information about Yama-Niyam and Dharma-Karma. It is said in the Gita that Brahma i.e. God is one. If you want to know the secret of Gita, then you will have to read it again and understand it because the things given therein are absolutely correct and accurate but they will have to be understood properly in the present context.
It contains information about the origin of the universe creation, the process of life’s development, the origin of humankind, yoga, religion, karma, God, politics, war, salvation, earth, sky, clan, life management, nation-building. The birth of Lord Sri Krishna is believed to have taken place in 3112 BC. It was Dwapara Yuga.
Lord Krishna gave this knowledge to Arjuna on the Ekadashi date in the field of Kurukshetra. He preached to Arjuna for about 45 minutes. The Gita has 18 chapters and 700 verses. Out of them, Lord Krishna spoke 574, Arjuna 85, Sanjay 40 and Dhritarashtra has said one verse.
Presentation Of Bhagavad Gita In Various Language
Shreemad Bhagavad Geeta is among the few Indian texts that have been commented on and interpreted in various languages. Much research work has been done on Bhagavad Gita and various scholars have interpreted it in their own way and manner. Adi Shankaracharya, Ramanuja, Ramanujacharya, Madhwacharya, Nimbark, Bhaskar, Vallabh, Sridhar Swami, Anand Giri, Madhusudan Saraswati, Maharshi Arvind Ghosh, Annie Besant, Gurudutt, Vinoba Bhave, Swami Chinmayananda, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Sant Gyaneshwar, Balagamandhan Tilak and, Mahatma Gandhi, Sarvepalli Dr Radhakrishnan, Swami Narayan, Jayadayal Goindka, Osho Rajneesh, Swami Kriyanand, Swami Ramsukhadas and Shri Ram Sharma Acharya etc. have given discourses on the Gita.
Lord Krishna preached Bhagavad Gita to Arjuna on the day of Margashirsha Shukla Ekadashi. For this reason, this Ekadashi is of great importance. This date is also known as Gita Jayanti. This Ekadashi is called Mokshada Ekadashi. Usually, Gita Jayanti falls in the month of December.
The 18 Chapters of Bhagavad Gita
The Gita has 18 chapters and 700 verses. Paths of Jeevan Darshan are given throughout the scripture. The teachings that Lord Krishna gave to Arjuna 5,000 years from today are equally relevant in today’s time. Here let us learn about the 18 chapters of the Bhagavad Gita.
The First Chapter Of Gita – Arjunavishad Yoga
The name of the first chapter is Arjunavishad Yoga. Speaking of this chapter, both the listener and the speaker proceed to solve the problem of life. Arjuna’s personality was a mixed form of valour, courage, patience and strength. Despite all this, Arjun’s mind gets distracted on the battlefield. Compassion became dominant and the Kshatriya nature disappeared, and he was distracted from his duty. Lord Krishna was Arjuna’s charioteer and understood Arjuna’s sentiments.
The Second Chapter of Gita – Sankhya Yoga
The second chapter of the Gita is known as Sankhyayoga. Seeing Arjuna bound in Mohamaya, Lord Krishna explained to him that he does not suit a hero like Arjun. So far, whatever Arjuna said to God, God called all of them a false form of enlightenment. According to Lord Krishna, through life and death, there will be experiences of both happiness and sorrow in the world. Kaal Chakra brings all these situations to the fore. If you know this nature of life, then there is no mourning. Here Arjuna also questions God as to how it is possible to get such intelligence that a person should act and do not desire fruit. Arjun also asked how a strong-minded person behaves in life. Lord Krishna says that with work (karma), anger, fear, raga and malice, the benign mood of the mind deteriorates and the senses are not in control. Conquering the senses is self-conquering.
The Third chapter of Gita – Karmayoga
In the third chapter called Karmayoga, Lord Krishna tried to explain to Arjuna, but Arjuna’s mind was not calming down. For a more in-depth knowledge of this subject, Arjuna asks the Lord which among the two (Sankhya or Yoga) does He consider to be good and if He could clarify which one of these two paths he should adopt. Herein, Lord Krishna says that there are two visions of life in this world. Among these are, the Gyanayoga for Sankhya followers and Karmayoga for Yoga followers. The key point here is that a person cannot give up his or her karma. Nature compels a person to do karma. Herein Lord Krishna has given a full explanation of karma.
The Fourth Chapter Of Gita: Karma Sannyas Yoga
The fourth chapter is Jnana-Karma-Sannyas Yoga. It explains how one can enjoy his/her work without expecting the results. It is here that God assured Arjuna that whenever there is a loss of religion, then there is an incarnation of God among humans.
The Fifth Chapter Of Gita – Karma Sannyas Yoga
The fifth chapter is Karma Sannyasa Yoga and the earlier things are also repeated herein. Special attention is drawn here to the mind’s relationship with karma, its rites of purification and so on. It is said that there is no difference between Samkhya and Yoga after reaching a tall height. If you walk properly on any one of the paths, the same result is obtained. By surrendering all the deeds of life, a person reaches the pole point of peace. Lord Shri Krishna also says that they are equally present in every living being of the universe.
The Sixth Chapter Of Gita – Atma Samayam Yoga
The sixth chapter is known as Atmasayam Yoga. Its essence is that the restraint of the senses in all subjects is the essence of karma and knowledge. If one’s state of mind is the same in happiness and sorrow then it is called Yoga. God has given Arjuna detailed information about Aatasayam Yoga.
The Seventh Chapter Of Gita – Gyan-Vigyan Yoga
The seventh chapter is called Gyan-Vigyan Yoga. Science was also very important in ancient Indian philosophy. Herein, the knowledge of the subtle elements of creation is explained. Here God has explained the various facets of nature. Various forms of God are also mentioned here.
The Eighth Chapter of Gita – Akshabrahma Yoga
It is known as Aksharabrahm Yoga. Herein, we realise that Srimad Bhagavad Gita is an extension of Upanishads, and Gita contains their essence.
The Ninth Chapter Of Gita – Rajaguhyogas
This chapter is called Rajaguhyoga. Herein, intellectual & logical knowledge is considered the best. Similarly, the word Raj also has a meaning. It can refer to the method of making the abilities of the mind divine. It says that all the deities in the world are forms of the same power.
The Tenth Chapter Of Gita – Vibhuti Yoga
The tenth chapter of Bhagavad Gita known as ‘Vibhuti-Yoga’, in a way, completes the part of Krishna-Arjuna catering to the Upanishads, theosophy and the information on Yoga.
The Eleventh Chapter Of Gita – Vishwaroopadarshan Yoga
This is Vishwaroopadarshan Yoga. In this, God showed Arjuna his Vishwaroopa (the entire world is in Him). Seeing this great form of Bhagavan, Arjuna was taken aback and was completely terrified & speechless.
The Twelfth Chapter Of Gita – Bhakti Yoga
The twelfth chapter is about Bhakti Yoga. It mentions the spiritual realization of the devotees of Saguna Brahma (the worshippers of God with a form). It also mentions the characteristics of the people who receive the special grace of God.
The Thirteenth Chapter Of Gita – Field Division Yoga
This is called field division yoga. It has the idea of a field (the battleground). Herein, the body is known as the field and the person who knows it is called the Kshatriya (a warrior). Besides, there is a description of peoples’ of various nature.
The Fourteenth Chapter Of Gita – Gunatrayogibhyoga
It has the essence of Vedic, philosophical and mythological elements. Herein, apart from the origin of the world and the knowledge & nature of men & women, it describes the three qualities, namely Sat, Raja and Tama. Besides, the virtues and vices of humans are also mentioned.
The Fifteenth Chapter Of Gita – Purushottam Yoga
It is about Purushottamayoga. Herein, the various measures of Bhagavadpraan are described. Besides, there is a description of the spiritual individual and also the poor knowledge of the ignorant living entity.
The Sixteenth Chapter Of Gita – Devasurasampadvibhagya
This chapter is called the Devasurasampampdibhagya. This chapter shows how the universe has been conceived in Rigveda as an interplay between the divine and demonic powers. It is a struggle of good and evil, the two forms of creation. It mentions the benefits of leading a spiritual, moral and godly-life which is in accordance with the scriptures.
The Seventeenth Chapter Of Gita – Shraddhatraya Vibha Yoga
It is about the three modes of material nature. It is related to Sat, Raj and Tama, these three qualities. The different distinctions of diet, sacrifice, asceticism and charity in accordance with the three modes of nature are mentioned along with those who perform intense penance against the scriptures.
The Eighteenth Chapter Of Gita
This is moksanasya yoga. It contains the essence and epilogue of all the teachings of the Gita. Here, renunciation during karma is the statement of Sankhyasiddhanta. Herein, God has preached the practical path to life and said that humans have been told to believe in God and to abide by following all practices truthfully.
Other Religious Texts (With The Name Gita)
The Bhagavad Geeta is a storehouse of knowledge and many of its injunctions are contemporary even to today’s perspective. However, there are many other texts named Gita. You can learn about them here. These include Ashtavakra Gita, Avadhoot Gita, Kapil Gita, Shriram Gita, Shruti Gita, Uddhav Gita, Vaishnav Gita and Krishi Gita.
Life Management From The Bhagavad Gita
Bhagwat Gita contains matter which is useful for managerial skills even in modern times. If you study its verses, you will find that Lord Krishna has given many important messages to the world through Arjuna. Here we are giving you this information through some verses.
नियतं कुरु कर्म त्वं कर्म ज्यायो ह्यकर्मण:।
शरीरयात्रापि च ते न प्रसिद्धयेदकर्मण:।।
Through this verse Lord Krishna says to Arjuna, if you do according to your religion, you will definitely get success. These things apply even in today’s perspective. That is, if you act according to your prescribed duty, then success will kiss your footsteps. That is, if you are a businessperson, pay full attention to your business and if you are a student, then there is no way other than studying. If you stay focused, no one can stop you from getting success.
नास्ति बुद्धिरयुक्तस्य न चायुक्तस्य भावना।
न चाभावयत: शांतिरशांतस्य कुत: सुखम्।
Here Shri Krishna tells Arjuna about discrimination. He says that a human without discrimination does not have the intelligence to make decisions and if there is no intelligence, then one can not do anything fruitfully. How will he/she find peace and happiness in such a situation?
कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन।
मा कर्मफलहेतु र्भूर्मा ते संगोस्त्वकर्मणि ।।
This is an important verse. In this, Krishna tells Arjuna that you keep doing your karma, do not think about the fruits. That is, you should work with your integrity and honesty, but not think about its results.
योगस्थ: कुरु कर्माणि संग त्यक्तवा धनंजय।
सिद्धय-सिद्धयो: समो भूत्वा समत्वं योग उच्यते।।
You should not do karma and yoga while keeping the sense of fame or shame in your mind. Also, you should put your full intelligence into your work.
Shreemad Bhagwat Geeta is rightly called the crux of Vedic wisdom. It is the essence of human morality and strikes the best balance between the righteous and pragmatic factors.