Biological Theory for Pre-determined Personality
Although there is disagreement on the precise number of different personality traits and the factors that influence these qualities, personality traits assist to define who we are as individuals. Is personality inherited, or does our environment have a bigger influence on who we become? Both heredity and environment have an impact on how a person develops their personality, albeit the exact impact of each factor varies depending on the particular personality trait in the issue.
What are personality traits?
According to the notion of characteristics, our personalities are composed of a variety of various broad traits. For instance, extroversion, also referred to as extraversion, is a personality trait that explains how individuals engage with the outside world. For instance, some people are quite extroverted and outgoing, whilst others are more quiet and more introverted.
Characteristics that define persons as unique individuals include typically persistent patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. It was once thought that personality characteristics didn’t change much throughout a lifetime. Several longitudinal research has shown that personality changes may and do happen over time and that features are more nuanced than previously thought.
Environmental vs. Genetic Causes
When it comes to personality, which counts more—nature or nurture? How much of your personality is influenced by your DNA? For decades, scientists have studied families, twins, adopted children, and foster homes to learn more about the genetic and environmental influences on personality. Personality can be influenced by both nature and nurture, while extensive twin studies point to a significant genetic component.
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Are some personality traits hereditary in people?
Children’s temperaments, which are thought to be genetically influenced between 20% and 60% of the time, show early clues of their personalities. The three basic temperaments of children are easy, tough, and slow-to-warm-up.
So how much does temperament in early life affect personality as we become older? The fundamental temperament of a youngster affects how they interact with their surroundings. As a result, these various interactions result in various experiences. Your temperament or disposition affects your personality, yet the two are not always the same and can even diverge significantly. Your behaviour and how you engage with the world around you are influenced by your temperament. Contrarily, your personality includes all of your evolving ideas, thoughts, traits, attributes, and behaviours.
If someone asked you to list the characteristics of your personality that best describe you, what would you say? You might list a range of characteristics like kindness, aggression, politeness, shyness, extroversion, or ambition. The number of terminology used to describe various facets of personality would likely number in the hundreds or perhaps thousands if you were to construct a list of every personality feature. A list of over 4,000 phrases describing various personality qualities was once compiled by psychologist Gordon Allport.
Although there has been discussion about the number of personality qualities throughout much of psychology’s history, the big five model of personality is still used widely today. The big five model proposes that personality is made up of five main dimensions. On each of the five main traits, individual personalities may fall somewhere in the middle, at the top, or at the bottom.
The following five characteristics make up personality:
- Agreeableness: Kindness, Compassion, and other Prosocial Behaviors
- Consciousness: High levels of contemplation, strong impulse control, and goal-directed behaviour
- Extroversion: sociability, chattiness, assertiveness, and excitement.
- Neuroticism: melancholy, irritability, emotional instability, and numerous anxieties.
- Openness: Creative, open to experimenting, and willing to consider speculative ideas
The majority of the traits you might use to characterize your own personality fit into one of these main categories. Extroversion is characterised by personality qualities like shyness, extroversion, friendliness, and sociability, whereas conscientiousness is characterised by attributes like conscientiousness, thoughtfulness, organization, and ambition. According to research, heredity accounts for 40% to 60% of the variation in the big five personality traits.
Changes in Personality Traits
Change is typically challenging when it comes to some of the broad, dominating qualities. These alterations typically happen in extremely little doses. For instance, a very extroverted person may gradually develop a more reserved personality. This does not necessarily imply that they will become more reserved.
It merely signifies that there has been a little change in the person’s level of extroversion. The person is still extroverted and sociable, but they may discover that occasionally they also like quieter environments or alone. According to research, people do seem to get more introverted as they age.
The principles of personality traits
Scholars have also asserted that studies into personality have revealed a number of fundamental characteristics.
Identity development principle: As people become older, their sense of self becomes more important to them and requires more upkeep. People are still experimenting with numerous roles and identities while they are younger. People start to feel more commitment to the identity they have developed during their lifetime as they get older.
Maturity principle: As people get older, they tend to become more agreeable, emotionally secure, and powerful in social situations.
Plasticity Principle: Although personality traits have a tendency to be stable, they are not unchangeable. At any stage of their lives, they are susceptible to environmental stimuli.
Role continuity principle: Rather than uniformity in settings, role continuity leads to continuity in personality traits.
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