Terminalia Arjuna: Introduction, Uses, Side-effects, Dosage & Precautions
Medicinal plants have been a primary source of therapeutic substances used to cure ailments since ancient times. Terminalia arjuna is a medicinal plant that is widely utilised and beneficial in indigenous systems of medicine for the treatment of a variety of essential conditions. Terminalia Arjuna medicinal uses are immense but there’s a lack of research in it.
This extensive analysis discusses the ethnomedical, phytochemical, pharmacognostic, pharmacological, and therapeutic implications of this compound in relation to many disorders, most notably cardiovascular problems. When used with other conventional medications, Terminalia arjuna plant has a favourable safety profile.
This review summarises various studies that demonstrate T. arjuna’s extensive therapeutic properties, including anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, antioxidant, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, hypotensive, and gastroprotective activities.
Terminalia arjuna bark uses are studied a lot as the bark contains a high concentration of flavonoids, including arjunolone, flavones, luteolin, baicalein, quercetin, kaempferol, and pelargonidin, which have been shown to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular illnesses when combined with other therapeutic plants. The chemical luteolin was isolated from the butanolic fraction of Terminalia arjuna and found to possess antimutagenic and antibacterial properties.
Terminalia Arjuna tree (often abbreviated as Arjuna tree) whose bark is used medicinally in Ayurveda to promote cardiovascular health, including heart health. Terminalia Arjuna has a wide range of bioactives, with the water extract showing positive results in enhancing left ventricular function without toxicity or side effects when taken three times a day at 500mg (every 8 hours).
Not much human research on Terminalia Arjuna bark has been undertaken, and many of them have small sample sizes. The water extract appears to improve heart function in those who have recently experienced cardiac stress or injury. Myocardial infarction is the most extensively studied condition in this regard. Only one study on otherwise healthy people exists, but Arjuna improved left ventricular function in an exercise test, and the effects could benefit anyone regardless of health.
Terminalia Arjuna extract appears to protect cardiac tissue in animal models in response to a variety of cardiac problems, including beta(2)adrenergic agonists (such as ephedrine, however, isoproterenol was utilised in the trials) and catecholamines itself.
The water extract appears to be beneficial to cardiovascular health, particularly in terms of left ventricular function. Although the human trials are still weak, with only one in healthy humans (preliminary data), all of the evidence looks to be promising and in the same favourable direction. Also, the water extract appears to be quite harmless.
Other extracts with different bioactives, such as ethanolic or acetone, may not have similar cardioprotective properties (no human studies, but some in vitro evidence suggesting the bioactives aren’t in these extracts), but they do appear to be cancer-protective. Tumour growth and DNA damage in response to mutagens are both reduced in animal models when the ethanolic extract or isolated Arjunolic Acid (commonly seen as the main bioactive) is used, and these effects are attributed to Arjuna’s antioxidative capacity, which is comparable to Vitamin C on a per weight basis. Because the anti-cancer benefits of the ethanolic extract include some cytotoxic qualities, an LD50 has been determined with this extract, and side effects could be probable. The anti-cancer evidence is relatively limited, while cytotoxicity in cancer cells has been proven however again there is a lack of evidence for it to assess healthy cells (a good anti-cancer drug will be highly selective in killing cancer cells, which Arjuna does, and not healthy cells, which Arjuna has not been sufficiently tested for).
Other potential uses of Arjuna include ulcer protection in the stomach (associated with the ethanolic extract), liver and kidney protection likely mediated by antioxidative properties (ethanolic extract), and cardiovascular properties that may improve anaerobic cardiovascular performance in healthy people (with one study using sprinting as a test).
Ethanolic extracts have potent antioxidative and potentially potent anticancer effects, but because there are currently no reported side effects (due to a lack of human interventions), it is theoretically possible that higher than recommended doses could be harmful due to the anticancer effects (cytotoxicity)
In many clinical studies, Terminalia Arjuna was given at a dose of 1 to 2 g per day, which was determined to be the best amount in patients with CAD. Side effects such as headache, moderate gastritis, and constipation are less common with these doses. After more than two years of therapy, there were no complaints of haematological, hepatic, metabolic, or renal damage. Some facts recently reported that after 28 days of treatment with Terminalia arjuna capsules, there was no significant difference in body and organ weights between the control and treated groups of 93 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP) of idiopathic and ischemic causes (500 mg at 8 h). The extract had no harmful effects based on haematological and biochemical markers. There were no obvious abnormalities or histological changes found pathologically, and no mortality was recorded after 28 days.
Few studies found that pretreatment with arjunolic acid from Terminalia arjuna bark effectively protected cerebral I/R generated oxidative damage due to its antioxidant properties, and that arjunolic acid supplementation could be advantageous in stroke-prone people. In rats, arjunolic acid from Terminalia arjuna reduced heart damage caused by sodium nitrite and restored the natural balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Arjunolic acid also shielded cardiac tissues against both extrinsic and intrinsic cell death. With greater doses of T. arjuna, Parmar reported a decrease in serum thyroid hormone concentrations as well as an increase in hepatic LPO. To fully understand T. arjuna’s genuine therapeutic potential, well-controlled multicentric clinical trials with a larger number of individuals and a standardised product are required.
For Oral Intake: For chest discomfort (angina), 500 mg of Terminalia arjuna powdered bark was taken three times per day, along with normal chest pain treatment, for up to three months.
Terminalia arjuna in a variety of forms, and the dosage is mentioned below:
Terminalia arjuna Bark Powder (Arjuna Churna)
1 to 3 gm for children
3 to 6 gm for adults
24 gm per day is the maximum dose that can be taken (in divided doses, twice a day) It’s a rough estimate. 2 hours post-meal is the advised time to take it. Coconut milk, jaggery, or sugar are used as adjuvants.
Arjuna Ksheera Pak:
40–80 mL for children
Adults can take upto 160 ml
320 ml per day is the maximum dosage possible that too should be taken in divided doses, twice a day. It’s a rough estimate. Best Time to Take: 2 Hours post-meal or make sure to wait 30 minutes before and 60 minutes after drinking Arjuna Ksheer to eat anything.
Dosage of Arjuna Bark Juice
5–10 mL for children
For adults, it can range from 10-20 ml
40 ml per day is the maximum dosage possible that too should be taken in divided doses, twice a day. It’s a rough estimate. On an empty stomach in the morning and late afternoon or early evening are the best times to take it. Water as an adjuvant (if needed).
Dosage of Arjuna Bark Decoction
25 to 50 mL for children
For adults, it can range from 50 to 100 ml
Max dosage is 200 ml per day that too should be taken in divided doses, twice a day. It’s a rough estimate. On an empty stomach in the morning, late afternoon, or early evening, or 30 minutes before a meal, or 2 hours after a meal are the best times to take it.
Dosage of Arjuna Bark Water Extract
125 to 250 mg for children
For adults, it can range from 250 to 500 mg
1500 mg per day is the maximum dose that can be taken (in divided doses, twice a day) It’s a rough estimate. On an empty stomach in the morning, late afternoon or early evening, or 2 hours after a meal are the best times to take it. Use Water as an adjuvant.
Pregnancy: There is some evidence that Terminalia arjuna may be harmful to a pregnant woman. There isn’t enough solid evidence to say whether the other two species are safe to use while pregnant. Avoid utilising any Terminalia species if you want to be safe.
Breast-feeding: There isn’t enough credible information to say whether Terminalia is safe to use while nursing. Avoid using to be on the safe side.
Terminalia may help to prevent blood clots in those who have bleeding issues. In those with bleeding disorders, this may increase their risk of bruising and bleeding.
Terminalia has been shown to reduce blood sugar levels in diabetics. Your healthcare professional may need to make changes to your diabetic meds.
During surgery, terminalia may impair blood sugar regulation and raise the risk of bleeding. Stop taking Terminalia at least two weeks before your procedure.
arjuna is commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, including heart disease and accompanying chest pain, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol, based on available literature data. It’s also used in treating urinary tract infections and ear pain.T. arjuna’s efficacy as an anti-ischemia drug and a potent antioxidant in preventing LDL, reperfusion ischemic injury to the heart, and its ability to lower atherogenic lipid levels has been proven in numerous experimental and clinical investigations. However, ongoing research into the specific molecular mechanism, medication administration, drug-drug interactions, and toxicological investigations using T. arjuna is critical.